In the post “Low Frequency Oscillator,” an oscillator is used to modulate the frequency of a second oscillator; This is known as frequency modulation. By substituting a low frequency oscillator with a high frequency oscillator, we get Frequency modulation synthesis, which produces harmonically rich spectra with as few as two sine wave oscillators.
This technique was first applied to music by American composer John Chowning at Stanford University in 1967. FM was a real game changer. Since FM could produce a wide range of musically interesting sounds with very little computation, it helped pave the way for computer music to transition from a institutional commodity to a viable mainstream technology; Primitive digital devices could fiscally and audibly compete with physical and analog instruments. The Yamaha DX7, an FM synthesizer, was released in 1983 and became the “first commercially successful digital synthesizer.” If memory serves me correctly, I once heard that long before I was a student at The Berklee College of Music, their computer music program was FM Synthesis.
A Csound port of Chowning’s most famous musical work “Stria” is included with QuteCsound as one of the examples.
FM synthesis is a broad topic that would be impossible to cover in a single blog post. I encourage you to read chapter 9 of the Csound Book, “FM Synthesis and Morphing in Csound: from Percussion to Brass” by Brian Evens.
To get you started with some basic FM programming, I created an example CSD that uses the foscil opcode, a self contained FM synthesizer. You can immediately start plugging in various values to hear the results. Here’s a quick run down of the pfields for the instument:
- p4 — Amplitude
- p5 — Pitch
- p6 — Carrier ratio. Changing this will generally affect the base frequency of the note played, as well as the timbre. This works in tandem with the modulator ratio.
- p7 — Modulator ratio. Changing this will affect the timbre.
- p8 — Index of modulation. This determines how much modulation is applied. A value of 0 will apply no modulation, resulting in a sine wave. The higher the value, the more spectra there is in the sound, producing a brighter timbre. The index is modulated by an envelope, so each note will start with an index supplied here, then fade to 0 by the time the note reaches the end.
[kml_flashembed movie="http://player.soundcloud.com/player.swf?url=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.soundcloud.com%2Ftracks%2F6219223&show_comments=true&auto_play=false&color=cc0000" width="550" height="81" wmode="transparent" /]Listen @ SoundCloud
Download foscil.csd here.
I personally have a strong association in which every time I hear a certain classes of FM sounds I can’t help but think of the Atari arcade classic Marble Madness. The sound chip inside the machine was produced by Yamaha and “is similar to a Yamaha DX7 synthesizer.” It was also the first Atari game to use it, which probably explains why I think of this particular game; I spent much of my childhood in various arcades.